الحمد لله تبارك و تعالى الذى قد جعل القلم والقرطاس للكتابة أدة, والذى جعل الكتابة قراءة, و قد أملأ
القرائة معلومة, وأرفع من علم رفعة
وصلاة الله وسلامه على من غفر له ماتقدّم من ذنبه وما تأخّر سيّدنا محمّد الذي منه نرتجى شفاعة
أشهد أن لااله الّاالله وأنّ محمّدا عبده ورسوله شهادة
By reading the biographies of the Authors of books we learn, it is hoped the reader can take the lessons and wisdom from the life of them. Because their lives are full of very valuable lessons. In this paper the writers presented several biographical of The Authors of books that we learn every day, such as Imam al-Hidayah Bidayatul Ghozali author of the book; Imam Ibn Malik, author of the book Alfiyah Ibn Malik and others.
In the midle of century, Islam was experincing gold era. Planty of muslim saintist scholars born at this era. They are authors of many great books. All of mentioned books have been being used and learned by muslim students or teachers. But, in fact many students who are learning these books doesn’t know who is the authors of the books they are learning. Really, it is important to know the biography of muslim saitist scholars, cause from it we can get much science and spirit to study more.
Here the writers are trying to present a paper consist of muslim saintist biography, but we don’t mention all of them, just several of them or the scholars wose books are learned by Darunnajat student. And we are not expecting just this paper can be usefull to know the biography of muslim saintis scholars.
1.K.H. Aminuddin Masyhudi, the chief of Darunnajat Modern Boarding School.
2.Mr. Abdul Wahab Majid, Director of Kulliyatul Mu’allimin Al-Islamiyyah Darunnajat.
3.Mr. Agus Trimulyo, the teacher of our English lesson.
4.Mr. Mahfudz Masyhudi, Our leading paper.
5.All of KMI’s teachers.
6.Our beloved parents.
7.The graduate of class six 2010-2011 period.
8.All of Darunnajat students.
Biographies of Muslim Saintist scholars
D.Yahya Ibn Syarof
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Abu Hamid al-Tusi al-Ghazali [or al-Ghazali] al-Shafi‘i (450-505), “the Proof of Islam” (Hujjat al-Islam), “Ornament of the Faith,” “Gatherer of the Multifarious Sciences,” “Great Siddîq,” absolute mujtahid, a major Shafi‘i jurist, heresiographer and debater, expert in the principles of doctrine and those of jurisprudence. Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated that, like ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz and al-Shafi‘i for their respective times, al-Ghazzali is unanimously considered the Renewer of the Fifth Islamic Century. Ibn al-Subki writes: “He came at a time when people stood in direr need of replies against the philosophers than the darkest night stands in need of the light of the moon and stars.” Among his teachers in law, debate, and principles: Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Radhakani in Tus, Abu Nasr al-Isma‘ili in Jurjan, and Imam al-Haramayn Abu al-Ma‘ali al-Juwayni in Naysabur, from where he departed to Baghdad after the latter’s death. Ibn ‘Asakir also mentions that al-Ghazzali took al-Bukhari’s Sahih from Abu Sahl Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hafsi. Among his other shaykhs in hadith were Nasr ibn ‘Ali ibn Ahmad al-Hakimi al-Tusi, ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khawari, Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Muhammad al-Suja`i al-Zawzani, the hadith master Abu al-Fityan ‘Umar ibn Abi al-Hasan al-Ru’asi al-Dahistani, and Nasr ibn Ibrahim al-Maqdisi. Among his shaykhs in tasawwuf were al-Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Farmadi al-Tusi – one of Abu al-Qasim al-Qushayri’s students – and Yusuf al-Sajjaj.
On his way back from Jurjan to Tus al-Ghazzali was robbed by highwaymen. When they left him he followed them but was told: “Leave us or you will die.” He replied: “I ask you for Allah’ sake to only return to me my notes, for they are of no use to you.” The robber asked him: “What are those notes?” He said: “Books in that satchel, for the sake of which I left my country in order to hear, write, and obtain their knowledge.” The robber laughed and said: “How can you claim that you obtained their knowledge when we took it away from you and left you devoid of knowl-edge!” Then he gave an order and the satchel was returned to him. Al-Ghazzali said: “This man’s utterance was divinely inspired (hâdhâ mustantaqun): Allah caused him to say this in order to guide me. When I reached Tus I worked for three years until I had memorized all that I had written down.”
Al-Ghazzali came to Baghdad in 484 and began a prestigious career of teaching, giving fatwa, and authoring books in nearly all the Islamic sciences of his day. His skill in refuting opponents was unparalleled except by his superlative godwariness, which led him to abandon his teaching position at the Nizamiyya school four years later, deputizing his brother Ahmad, famous for his preaching, to replace him. Upon completion of pilgrimage to Mecca al-Ghazzali headed for Damascus, then al-Qudus, then Damascus again where he remained for several years, taking up the ascetic life with the words: “We sought after knowledge for other than Allah’s sake, but He refused that it be for anything other than Him.”
He came out of seclusion in 499 and travelled to Cairo, Iskandariyya and other places, finally returning to Baghdad where he taught his magnum opus Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din until his death in nearby Tus, occupying the remainder of his time with devotions, Qur’an recitations, prayer and fasting, and the company of Sufis. Ibn al-Jawzi narrated in al-Thabat ‘Inda al-Mamat (“Firmness at the Time of Death”) from al-Ghazzali’s brother Ahmad: “On Monday [14 Jumada al-Akhira] at the time of the dawn prayer my brother Abu Hamid made his ablution, prayed, then said: ‘Bring me my shroud.’ He took it, kissed it and put it on his eyes, saying: ‘We hear and obey in readiness to enter the King’s presence.’ Then he stretched his legs, facing the Qibla, and died before sunrise – may Allah sanctify his soul!” It is related that al-Shadhili saw a dream in which the Prophet (s) pointed out al-Ghazzali to Musa (as) and ‘Isa (as) asking them: “Is there such a wise scholar in your communities?” to which they replied no.
The following is a list of some of al-Ghazzali’s works as found in al-Zabidi ’s and Ibn al-Subki’s recensions:
Four works in Shafi‘i fiqh: the large al-Basit, the medium, seven-volume al-Wasit, and the two-volume al-Wajiz, condensed in al-Khulasa. Al-Wasit received many commentaries and abridgments, among them al-Nawawi’s Rawda al-Talibin.
Four books on usûl al-fiqh: al-Mankhul, written in the lifetime of his teacher, Imam al-Haramayn; Shifa’ al-Ghalil fi Masa’il [or Masalik] al-Ta ‘lil; al-Maknûn; and al-Mustasfa. “Imam al-Ghazali’s Encyclopedia of Shari‘a Source Methodology, his fourth book on the subject, and his last word, was al-Mustasfa, which has been printed several times in Egypt and elsewhere. Indeed, this is the work he wrote after coming out of his period of meditation and seclusion.
# Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din, among his last works.
# Al-Imla’ ‘ala Mushkil al-Ihya’, in which he replied to some of the insinuations made against the Ihya’ in his lifetime. This book is also called al-Ajwiba al-Muskita ‘an al-As’ila al-Mubhita. Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, now lost.
# Jawahir al-Qur’an.
# al-Arba‘un fi al-Tawhid, originally part of Jawahir al-Qur’an.
# al-Asma’ al-Husna.
# al-Ma’akhidh, on the divergences of jurisprudents.
# Tahsin al-Ma’akhidh, a commentary on al-Ma’akhidh.
# Kimya’ al-Sa‘ada, The Alchemy of Happiness, originally written in Persian.
# al-Lubab al-Muntakhal, on disputation.
# al-Iqtisad fi al-I‘tiqad, in which he said:
# “The anthropomorphists (al-Hashwiyya) assert direction for Allah while guarding themselves from divesting Allah of His attributes (ta‘tîl), falling thereby into likening Allah to creation (tashbîh). Allah has granted success to Ahl al-Sunna in establishing the truth. They have recognized the proper goal in establishing their method, and understood that direction is denied and disallowed for Allah because it pertains to bodies and complements them; while vision of Him is firmly established because it directly follows knowledge and attends it as its perfecting component.”
# Mi‘yar al-Nazar.
# Mihakk al-Nazar.
# Bayan al-Qawlayn, on al-Shafi‘i’s two schools.
# al-Mustazhiri, a refutation of the esotericists or Batiniyya.
# Qawasim al-Batiniyya, another refutation.
# Tahafut al-Falasifa declaring the disbelief of the philosophers, to which the qadi of Andalus Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd al-Maliki responded with Tahafut al-Tahafut.
# al-Maqasid fi Bayan I‘tiqad al-Awa’il, also known as Maqasid al-Falasifa.
# Asrar Mu‘amalat al-Din.
# Asrar al-Anwar al-Ilahiyya bi al-Ayat al-Matluwwa.
# Akhlaq al-Abrar wa al-Najat min al-Ashrar.
# Asrar Ittiba‘ al-Sunna.
# Asrar al-Huruf wa al-Kalimat.
# Bayan Fada’ih al-Ibahiyya, against freethinkers.
# Bada’i‘ al-Sani‘.
# Tanbih al-Ghafilin.
# Talbis Iblis, a title later used by Ibn al-Jawzi against al-Ghazzali and others.
# Khulasa al-Rasa’il ila ‘Ilm al-Masa’il, an abridgment of al-Muzani’s Mukhtasar.
# al-Risala al-Qudsiyya fi ‘Ilm al-Kalam.
# al-Sirr al-Masun, a book of Qur’anic invocations against enemies.
# Sharh Da’ira ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, also known as Nukhba al-Asma’.
# ‘Aqida al-Misbah.
# ‘Unqud al-Mukhtasar, an abridgment of Imam al-Haramayn’s abridgment of al-Muzani’s Mukhtasar.
# Rasa’il (“Epistles”), published recently in a single volume, in seven parts, comprising the following epistles:
(1) Al-Hikma fi Makhluqat Allah — Subhan wa Ta`ala –; Mi‘raj al-Salikin.
(2) Rawda al-Talibin wa ‘Umda al-Salikin [in tasawwuf and tawhîd]; Qawa‘id al-‘Aqa-’id fi al-Tawhid which he included in the Ihya’ in full; Khulasa al-Tasanif fi al-Tasawwuf in which he defines tasawwuf as follows:
Know that tasawwuf is two things: Truthfulness with Allah Almighty and good conduct with people. Anyone that practices these two things is a Sufi. Truthfulness with Allah is that the servant put an end to his ego’s shares in the divine command. Good conduct with people is to not prefer one’s demands over theirs as long as their demands are within the para-meters of the Law. Whoever approves of the contravention of the Law or contravenes it can never be a Sufi, and if he claims he is, he is lying.
(3) Al-Qistas al-Mustaqim; Minhaj al-‘Arifin; Al-Risala al-Laduniy-ya; Faysal al-Tafriqa (fi al-Takfir); Ayyuha al-Walad, originally written in Persian.
(4) Mishkat al-Anwar; Risala al-Tayr; al-Risala al-Wa‘ziyya; Iljam al-‘Awam ‘an ‘Ilm al-Kalam; al-Mad-nun bihi ‘ala Ghayri Ahlih; Al-Ajwi-ba al-Ghazzaliyya fi al-Masa’il al-Ukh-ra-wiyya.
(5) Bidaya al-Hidaya; Kimya al-Sa‘ada; al-Adab fi al-Din; al-Kashf wa al-Tabyin fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in.
(6) Sirr al-‘Alamayn wa Kashf ma fi al-Darayn; al-Durra al-Fakhira fi Kashf ‘Ulum al-Akhira.
(7) Qanun al-Ta’wil; al-Ahadith al-Qudsiyya; al-Munqidh min al-Dalal, in which he said:
The Sufi path consists in cleansing the heart from whatever is other than Allah… I concluded that the Sufis are the seekers in Allah’s Way, and their conduct is the best conduct, and their way is the best way, and their manners are the most sanctified. They have cleaned their hearts from other than Allah and they have made them as pathways for rivers to run, carrying the knowledge of Allah.
Al-Ghazzali’s Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din ranks as one of the most widely read books in Islam, having earned the praise of the scholars and the general acceptance of the Community.
“The verification of the wording of narrations was not an obligation for al-Ghazzali – may Allah have mercy on him! He would convey the general meaning, conscious of the different significations of the words and their mutual conflict with one another avoiding what would consti-tute interpolation or arbitrary rendering of one term with an-other.
O Allah! benefit us with the Proof of Your Religion, Imam al-Ghazzali, and thank him on behalf of Muhammad’s Community — upon him Your blessings and peace.
Allah’s blessings and peace upon the best of prophets and messengers, our master Muhammad, and upon his Family and all his Companions. Praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.
`Abd al-Rahman ibn Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Sabiq al-Din, Jalal al-Din al-Misri al-Suyuti al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari, also known as Ibn al-Asyuti (849-911), the mujtahid imam and renewer of the tenth Islamic century, foremost hadith master, jurist, Sufi, philologist, and historian, he authored works in virtually every Islamic science.
Born to a Turkish mother and non-Arab father and raised as an orphan in Cairo, he memorized the Qur’an at eight, then several complete works of Sacred Law, fundamentals of jurisprudence, and Arabic grammar; after which he devoted himself to studying the Sacred Sciences under about a hundred and fifty shaykhs.
Among them the foremost Shafi`i and Hanafis shaykhs at the time, such as the hadith master and Shaykh al-Islam Siraj al-Din Bulqini, with whom he studied Shafi`i jurisprudence until his death; the hadith scholar Shaykh al-Islam Sharaf al-Din al-Munawi, with whom he read Qur’anic exegesis and who commented al-Suyuti’s al-Jami` al-Saghir in a book entitled Fayd al-Qadir; Taqi al-Din al-Shamani in hadith and the sciences of Arabic; the specialist in the principles of the law Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli, together with whom he compiled the most widespread condensed commentary of Qur’an in our time, Tafsir al-Jalalayn; Burhan al-Din al-Biqa`i; Shams al-Din al-Sakhawi; he also studied with the Hanafi shaykhs Taqi al-Din al-Shamni, Shihab al-Din al-Sharmisahi, Muhyi al-Din al-Kafayji, and the hadith master Sayf al-Din Qasim ibn Qatlubagha. He travelled in the pursuit of knowledge to Damascus, the Hijaz, Yemen, India, Morocco, the lands south of Morocco, as well as to centers of learning in Egypt such as Mahalla, Dumyat, and Fayyum. He was some time head teacher of hadith at the Shaykhuniyya school in Cairo at the recommendation of Imam Kamal al-Din ibn al-Humam, then the Baybarsiyya, out of which he was divested through the complaints of disgruntled shaykhs which he had replaced as teachers. He then retired into scholarly seclusion, never to go back to teaching.
Al-Suyuti’s student and biographer Shams al-Din al-Dawudi al-Maliki – the author of Tabaqat al-Mufassirin al-Kubra – said: “I saw the shaykh with my own eyes writing and finishing three works in one day which he himself authored and proofread. At the same time he was dictating hadith and replying beautifully to whatever was brought to his attention.” Sakhawi reproached him his plagiarism of past books, and others said that the profusion of his works made for their lack of completion and the frequency of flaws and contradictions in them. This is a charge commonly laid at the door of prolific authors, such as Ibn al-Jawzi and Ibn Taymiyya. Note also that there was some animosity between al-Suyuti and his shaykh al-Sakhawi, as shown by the former’s tract al-Kawi fi al-Radd `ala al-Sakhawi (“The Searing Brand in Refuting al-Sakhawi”) and his unflattering mention in the poem Nazm al-`Iqyan fi A`yan al-A`yan.
His chain of transmission in tasawwuf goes back to Shaykh `Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani, and al-Suyuti belonged to the Shadhili tariqa, which he eulogized in his brief defense of tasawwuf entitled Tashyid al-Haqiqa al-`Aliyya. In the latter book he states: “I have looked at the matters which the Imams of Shari`a have criticized in Sufis, and I did not see a single true Sufi holding such positions. Rather, they are held by the people of innovation and the extremists who have claimed for themselves the title of Sufi while in reality they are not.” In the Tashyid he also produces narrative chains of transmission proving that al-Hasan al-Basri did in fact narrate directly from `Ali ibn Abi Talib – Allah be well-pleased with him. This goes against commonly received opinion among the scholars of hadith,3 although it was also the opinion of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
When one of his shaykhs, Burhan al-Din Ibrahim ibn `Umar al-Biqa`i (d. 885), attacked Ibn `Arabi in a tract entitled Tanbih al-Ghabi ila Takfir Ibn `Arabi (“Warning to the Dolt That Ibn `Arabi is an Apostate”), al-Suyuti countered with a tract entitled Tanbih Al-Ghabi fi Takhti’a Ibn `Arabi (“Warning to the Dolt That Faults Ibn `Arabi”). Both epistles have been published.5 In his reply al-Suyuti states that he considers Ibn `Arabi a Friend of Allah whose writings are forbidden to those who read them without first learning the technical terms used by the Sufis. He cites from Ibn Hajar’s list in Anba’ al-Ghumr, among the trusted scholars who kept a good opinion of Ibn `Arabi or counted him a wali: Ibn `Ata’ Allah al-Sakandari (d. 709), al-Yafi`i (d. 678), Ibn `Abd al-Salam after the latter’s meeting with al-Shadhili, Shihab al-Din Abu al-`Abbas Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Malwi al-Tilimsani (d. 776), Siraj al-Din Abu Hafs `Umar ibn Ishaq al-Hindi al-Hanafi (d. 773) the author of Sharh al-Hidaya and Sharh al-`Ayni, Najm al-Din al-Bahi al-Hanbali (d. 802), al-Jabarti (d. 806), the major lexicographer al-Fayruzabadi (d. 818), Shams al-Din al-Bisati al-Maliki (d. 842), al-Munawi (d. 871), and others. Of note with regard to the above is the abundant use of Ibn `Arabi’s sayings by al-Munawi in his commentary of al-Suyuti’s Jami` al-Saghir entitled Fayd al-Qadir, and by Fayruzabadi in his commentary on Bukhari’s Sahih.
Al-Suyuti was Ash`ari in his doctrine as shown in many of his works. In Masalik al-Hunafa’ fi Walidayy al-Mustafa (“Methods Of Those With Pure Belief Concerning the Parents of The Prophet — Allah bless and greet him –“) he says:
The Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — parents died before he was sent as Prophet and there is no punishment for them, since (We never punish until We send a messenger (whom they reject)( (17:15 ). Our Ash`ari Imams among those in kalam, usul, and fiqh agree on the statement that one who dies while da`wa has not reached him, dies saved. This has been defined by Imam al-Shafi`i.. . . Some of the fuqaha’ explained that the reason is, such a person follows fitra or Primordial Disposition, and has not stubbornly refused nor rejected any Messenger.6
Below are the titles of some of al-Suyuti’s works in print kept in the Arabic collection of the University of Princeton in the State of New Jersey (USA). The most recent date has been given for works with more than one edition:
1. Abwab al Sa`ada Fi Asbab al-Shahada (“The Gates of Felicity in the Causes of the Witnessing to Oneness”)
2. Al-Ashbah wa al-Naza’ir fi Furu` al-Shafi`iyya (“Similarities in the Branches of the Law Within the Shafi`i School”)
3. Al-Ashbah wa al-Naza’ir fi al-`Arabiyya (“Similarities in Arabic”)
4. Al-Ahadith al-Hisan fi Fadl al-Taylasan (“The Beautiful Narrations Concerning the Merit of the Male Headcovering”)
5. Al-Fawz al-`Azim fi Liqa’ al-Karim (“The Tremendous Victory in Meeting the All-Generous”)
6. Alfiyya al-Suyuti al-Nahwiyya (“The Thousand-Line Poem on Philology”)
7. Alfiyya al-Suyuti fi Mustalah al-Hadith (“The Thousand-Line Poem on Hadith Nomenclature”)
8. `Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla (“Supererogatory Devotions for Each Day and Night”)
9. Al-Itqan fi `Ulum al-Qur’an (“Precision and Mastery in the Sciences of the Qur’an”)
10. Anis al-Jalis (“The Familiar Companion”)
11. Al-`Araj fi al-Faraj (“A Commentary on Ibn Abi al-Dunya’s `The Deliverance’,” a work on hope and joy)
12. Al-Arba`un Hadith fi Qawa`id al-Ahkam al-Shar`iyya (“Forty Narrations on Basic Legal Rulings”)
13. Asbab al-Nuzul (“Causes of Qur’anic Revelation” verse by verse)
14. Asbab Wurud al-Hadith (“Causes and Circumstances of Hadith”)
15. Isbal al-Kisa’ ala al-Nisa (“Women and the Donning of Cover”)
16. Asrar Tartib al-Qur’an (“The Secret in the Ordering of the Qur’an”)
17. Al-Aya al-Kubra fi Sharh Qissa al-Isra’ (“The Great Sign: Commentary on the Story of the Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — Night Journey”)
18. `Ayn al-Isaba fi Istidrak `A’isha `ala al-Sahaba (“Exactitude Itself in `A’isha’s Rectification of the Companions”)
19. Azhar al-Mutanathira fi al-Ahadith al-Mutawatira (“The Most Prominent of the Reports Concerning the Narrations of Mass Transmission”)
20. Al-Bahir fi Hukm al-Nabi Salla Allah Alayhi wa Sallam (“The Dazzling Light of the Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — Rulings”)
21. Al-bahja al-mardiyya fi sharh al-alfiyya (“The pleasing beauty: commentary on Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah Ibn Malik’s (“d. 1274 CE”) Alfiyya or thousand-line poem on grammar”)
22. Bulbul al-rawda (“Chronicle on al-Rawda, Egypt”)
23. Bushra al-Ka’ib bi liqa’ al-Habib (“The consolation of the sad with the meeting of the Beloved”)
24. Al-Dibaj ala Sahih Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (“Two-volume commentary on Sahih Muslim”)
25. Al-Durar al-Muntathira fi al-ahadith al-mushtahara (“The scattered pearls of famous narrations”); also published as al-nawafih al-`atira fi al-ahadith al-mushtahara (“The fragrant scents of famous narrations”)
26. Al-durr al-manthur fi al-tafsir bi al-ma’thur (“The scattered pearls: A commentary of Qur’an based on transmitted reports”)
27. Duruj al-munifa fi al-aba’ al-sharifa (“The outstanding entries concerning the Prophet’s — Allah bless and greet him — ancestors”)
28. Fadd al-wi`a’ fi ahadith raf` al-yadayn fi al-du`a (“The emptying of the vessel concerning raising the hands when making supplication”)
29. Al-ghurar fi fada’il `Umar (“The blazing highlights of `Umar’s merits”)
30. Al-haba’ik fi akhbar al-malaik (“The celestial orbits or the reports concerning the angels”)
31. Haqiqa al-sunna wa al-bid`a aw al-amr bi al-ittiba` wa al-nahi `an al-munkar (“The reality of Sunna and innovation or the ordering of obedient following and the prohibition of evil”)
32. Al-Hawi lil-fatawi fi al-fiqh wa-`ulum al-tafsir wa-al-hadith wa-al-usul wa-al-nahw wa-al-i`rab wa-sa’ir al-funun (“The collected legal decisions in jurisprudence, Qur’anic commentary, hadith, principles, language, and other sciences”)
33. Al-hujaj al-mubayyana fi al-tafdil bayna makka wa al-madina (“The proofs made manifest concerning the superexcellence of Mecca and Madina”)
34. Husn al-maqsid fi amal al-mawlid (“Excellence of purpose in celebrating the birth of the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him –“)
35. Husn al-samt fi al-samt (“The merits of silence”)
36. Ihya’ al-mayyit bi fadail ahl al-bayt (“Giving life to the dead, or: the merits of the Family of the Prophet — Allah bless and greet him –“)
Abu’l-Fadl Ahmad ibn Hajar’s family originated in the district of Qabis in Tunisia. Some members of the family had settled in Palestine, which they left again when faced with the Crusader threat, but he himself was born in Egypt in 773, the son of the Shafi‘i scholar and poet Nur al-Din ‘Ali and the learned and aristocratic Tujjar. Both died in his infancy, and he was later to praise his elder sister, Sitt al-Rakb, for acting as his ‘second mother’. The two children became wards of the brother of his father’s first wife, Zaki al-Din al-Kharrubi, who entered the young Ibn Hajar in a Qur’anic school (kuttab) when he reached five years of age. Here he excelled, learning Surat Maryam in a single day, and progressing to the memorization of texts such as the Mukhtasar of Ibn al-Hajib on usul. By the time he accompanied al-Kharrubi to Mecca at the age of 12, he was competent enough to lead the Tarawih prayers in the Holy City, where he spent much time studying and recalling God amid the pleasing simplicity of Kharrubi’s house, the Bayt al-‘Ayna’, whose windows looked directly upon the Black Stone. Two years later his protector died, and his education in Egypt was entrusted to the hadith scholar Shams al-Din ibn al-Qattan, who entered him in the courses given by the great Cairene scholars al-Bulqini (d.806) and Ibn al-Mulaqqin (d.804) in Shafi‘i fiqh, and of Zayn al-Din al-‘Iraqi (d.806) in hadith, after which he was able to travel to Damascus and Jerusalem, where he studied under Shams al-Din al-Qalqashandi (d.809), Badr al-Din al-Balisi (d.803), and Fatima bint al-Manja al-Tanukhiyya (d.803). After a further visit to Mecca and Madina, and to the Yemen, he returned to Egypt.
When he reached 25 he married the lively and brilliant Anas Khatun, then 18 years of age. She was a hadith expert in her own right, holding ijazas from Zayn al-Din al-‘Iraqi, and she gave celebrated public lectures in the presence of her husband to crowds of ulema among whom was Imam al-Sakhawi. After the marriage, Ibn Hajar moved into her house, where he lived until his death. Many noted how she surrounded herself with the old, the poor and the physically handicapped, whom it was her privilege and pleasure to support. So widely did her reputation for sanctity extend that during her fifteen years of widowhood, which she devoted to good works, she received a proposal from Imam ‘Alam al-Din al-Bulqini, who considered that a marriage to a woman of such charity and baraka would be a source of great pride.
Once ensconced in Egypt, Ibn Hajar taught in the Sufi lodge (khaniqah) of Baybars for some twenty years, and then in the hadith college known as Dar al-Hadith al-Kamiliyya. During these years, he served on occasion as the Shafi‘i chief justice of Egypt.
It was in Cairo that the Imam wrote some of the most thorough and beneficial books ever added to the library of Islamic civilization. Among these are al-Durar al-Kamina (a biographical dictionary of leading figures of the eighth century), a commentary on the Forty Hadith of Imam al-Nawawi (a scholar for whom he had particular respect); Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (an abbreviation of Tahdhib al-Kamal, the encyclopedia of hadith narrators by al-Mizzi), al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba (the most widely-used dictionary of Companions), and Bulugh al-Maram min adillat al-ahkam (on Shafi‘i fiqh).
In 817, Ibn Hajar commenced the enormous task of assembling his Fath al-Bari. It began as a series of formal dictations to his hadith students, after which he wrote it out in his own hand and circulated it section by section to his pupils, who would discuss it with him once a week. As the work progressed and its author’s fame grew, the Islamic world took a close interest in the new work. In 833, Timur’s son Shahrukh sent a letter to the Mamluk sultan al-Ashraf Barsbay requesting several gifts, including a copy of the Fath, and Ibn Hajar was able to send him the first three volumes. In 839 the request was repeated, and further volumes were sent, until, in the reign of al-Zahir Jaqmaq, the whole text was finished and a complete copy was dispatched. Similarly, the Moroccan sultan Abu Faris ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Hafsi requested a copy before its completion. When it was finished, in Rajab 842, a great celebration was held in an open place near Cairo, in the presence of the ulema, judges, and leading personages of Egypt. Ibn Hajar sat on a platform and read out the final pages of his work, and then poets recited eulogies and gold was distributed. It was, says the historian Ibn Iyas, ‘the greatest celebration of the age in Egypt.’
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar departed this life in 852. His funeral was attended by ‘fifty thousand people’, including the sultan and the caliph; ‘even the Christians grieved.’ He was remembered as a gentle man, short, slender, and white-bearded, a lover of chess and calligraphy, much inclined to charity; ‘good to those who wronged him, and forgiving to those he was able to punish.’ A lifetime’s proximity to the hadith had imbued him with a deep love of the Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), as is shown nowhere more clearly than in the poetry assembled in his Diwan, an original manuscript of which has been preserved at the Egyptian National Library. A few lines will suffice to show this well:
from fear of Him, his eyelid is wet with pouring tears.
Although his genealogy attributes him to a stone [hajar],
how often tears have flowed, sweet, pure and fresh!
Praise of you does not do you justice, but perhaps,
In eternity, its verses will be transformed into mansions.
My praise of you shall continue for as long as I live,
For I see nothing that could ever deflect me from your praise.
D.Yahya Ibn Syarof
Abu Zakaria Mohiuddin Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi (1234–1278) (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي), popularly known as al-Nawawi, an-Nawawi or Imam Nawawi (631 – 676 A.H. / 1234 – 1278 CE), was a Sunni Muslim author on Fiqh and hadith. His position on legal matters is considered the authoritative one in the Shafi’i Madhhab. He was born at Nawa near Damascus, Syria. As with many Arabic and Semitic names, the last part of his name refers to his hometown.
Biography He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253 he settled there as a private scholar. From a young age he showed signs of great intelligence, and so his father paid for a good education. As a judge, he was much sought after for advice and adjudication of disputes.
During his short life of only 45 years he wrote many books on Islamic studies and other topics. He collected and sourced 40 hadith of the Prophet Mohammed back to one of his companions, which was no small task.
In 1267 he succeeded Abu Shama as professor of hadith at the Ashrafiyya [school] in the city. He died at Nawa at a relatively young age, having never married.
Imaam an-Nawawi had three distinctive commendable qualities in his person. If anybody has only one out of these three, people turn to him in abundance for guidance. First, having knowledge and its dissemination. Second, to evade completely from the worldly inclinations, and the third, inviting to all that is good (Islam) enjoining virtue and forbidding vice. Imaam an-Nawawi had all three in him.
Shi’a Muslims have a sympathetic view of him. They regard some of his works favourably and have translated some into Persian.
• Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim, making use of others before him, and is considered one of the best commentaries on Sahih Muslim. It is available online.
•Riyadh as-Saaliheen is a collection of hadith on ethics, manners, conduct, and is very popular in the Muslim world today.
•al-Majmu’ sharh al-Muhadhdhab is a comprehensive manual of Islamic law according to the Shafi’i school has been edited with French translation by van den Bergh, 2 vols., Batavia (1882–1884), and published at Cairo (1888).
•minhaj al-Talibin, a classical manual on Islamic Law according to Shafi’i fiqh.
•Tahdhib al-Asma wal-Lughat has been edited as the Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men chiefly at the Beginning of Islam by F. Wüstenfeld (Göttingen, 1842–1847).
•Taqrib al-Taisir, an introduction to the study of hadith, it is an extension of Ibn al-Salah’s Muqaddimah, was published at Cairo, 1890, with Suyuti’s commentary “Tadrib al-Rawi”. It has been in part translated into French by W. Marçais in the Journal asiatique, series ix., vols. 16–18 (1900–1901).
•Forty Hadiths collection of the forty (actually forty-two) chief traditions has been frequently published along with numerous commentaries. It is available online as published by the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Center For other works see C. Brockelmann’s Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, vol. i. (Weimar, 1898), pp. 395–397.
•Ma Tamas ilayhi hajat al-Qari
•Kitab al-Adhkar is a collection of supplications of prophet Muhammad.
•al-Tibyan fi adab Hamalat al-Quran
•Adab al-fatwa wa al-Mufti wa al-Mustafti
•al-Tarkhis fi al-Qiyam
•Manasik on Hajj rituals.
•Sharh Sunan Abu Dawood
•Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari
Ibn Malik, the full name was Muhammad Jamaluddin ibn Abdillah ibn Malik al-Thay, born at t 600 H. in Jayyan. This area is a small town under the rule of Andalusia (Spain). At that time, the population of this country is in love with science, and they raced in their study, even raced well in writing scientific books. In childhood, Ibn Malik studying in the area, especially to learn on Shaykh al-Syalaubini (d. 645 H). Once an adult, he went to the East to perform the pilgrimage, and passed on to take science in Damascus. There he studied from several local scholars, including Al-Sakhawi (d. 643 H). From there went back to Aleppo.
In the area of two city name of Ibn Malik became known and admired by scientists, because of his intelligent and clear thinking. He displays many nahwiyah theories that describe the theories of the school of Andalusia, which is known to the Syrian people that time. Nahwiyah theory of this kind, many accompanied by his disciples, such as the imam Al-Nawawi, Ibn al-Athar al-Mizzi, al-Dhahabi, Al-Shairafi, and Qadli Qudlat Ibn al-Jama. To strengthen his theory, scholars of this European-born, always take the witness (martyr) of the texts of the Qur’an. If not found, he presents the text of Al-Hadith. If not available anymore, he took the witness from sya’ir-sya’ir famous Arab poets. All thoughts are processed through this paradigm set forth in the books of her composition, both shaped nazhom or in the form natsar (prose). In general, these figures essay better and more beautiful than the figures of its predecessor.
The shortest chapter is filled by two lines such as Bab al-Ikhtishash and longest chapter is the Jama ‘Taktsir because filled forty-two verses. In the book of poetry that uses Rojaz Bahar was prepared with the intention of (1) collects all the problems and shorof nahwiyah that are considered important. (2) explain complicated things with the language of the brief, but able to collect different rules, or with an example that can illustrate the conditions required by the rule. (3) evoke feelings of pleasure for people who want to learn it . All it proved, that the book is better than the book of Ibn Mu’thi Alfiyah. So, the author still appreciate Ibn Mu’thi because this figures to open creativity and more senior. In Islam, all juniors should respect seniors, not least because he is elderly, and show creativity.
Book Khulashoh which have been translated into many languages in the world, has an important position in the development of nahwu Science. Thanks to this book and the original book, the name of Ibn Malik became popular, and his opinion is much quoted by the scholars, including scholars who developed the science in the East. Al-Radli, a great scholar when compiling Sharh Ibn al-Kafiyah Hajib works, and popularizing many are citing the opinion of Ibn Malik. In other words, developments after the collapse of several academics nahwu Abbasids in Baghdad, and a slump in Daulat Fathimiyah scientists in Egypt, the students generally follow the ideas of Ibn Malik. Prior to the Andalusian empire collapsed, a lesson nahwu at first, not much in demand by the public. But after a long, these lessons become a necessity and dinamislah movements composing an interesting book about science for the students of this. There are lot of disparate essays, the essay is the shortest way, which hung large bouquet. The purpose of the author want to spread this knowledge, to society, and can be taken advantage by the student. Of that, comes Ibn Malik, Ibn Hisham, and al-Sayuthi. Their essays about the books nahwu many displays of new methods and presents many new method, which enrich the treasures of science. They still display the treasures of the new science, although many old theories are still used. In other words, they present new ideas and creativity, as if their lives are prepared to become the successor of Imam Sibawaih (initiator emergence nahwu and Shorof, ed.). On that basis, Alfiyah Ibn Malik is a book which very much helped by other scholars to write Sharh (commentary) and hasyiyah (marginal notes) against Sharh it.
In the book Kashef al-Zhunun, author of Sharh Alfiyah scholars numbering more than forty people. They have to write at length, there is writing with a brief (Mukhtasar), and there are also scholars whose writing has not been completed. On the sidelines of it came some new creations from some scholars who provide marginal notes (hasyiyah) on the books Sharh. Sharh Alfiyah first written is the fruit of his own pen son of Ibn Malik, Mohammed Badruddin (w.686 H). Many criticize the idea Sharh nahwiyah described by his father, as criticism of the description maf’ul mutlaq, tanazu ‘and the nature mutasyabihat. Criticism was strange but the son is convinced that his father’s writings need to be reorganized. On that basis, Badruddin composing verse Alfiyah counter and took a martyr of the verses of the Koran. There also seems rational, but almost all scientists know that not all the text of the Qur’an can be adjusted with nahwiyah theories that have been considered standard by the clergy. Critics who in his youth housed in this Ba’labak, very rational and well-founded, only she was a lot of support theories that syadz nahwiyah Therefore, Sharh Alfiyah writers who emerged later, as Ibn Hisham, Ibn Aqil, and Al -Asymuni, rectify many lines of thought was the son of Ibn Malik. Even so, Sharh Badrudin is quite interesting, so many great scholars who wrote hasyiyah for him, like the works of Ibn Jama (w.819 H), Al-‘Ainy (w.855 H), Zakaria al-Anshariy (d. 191 H), Al-Sayuthi (w.911 H), Ibn Qasim al-Abbadi (w.994 H), and Qadli Taqiyuddin Abdulqadir ibn al-Tamimiy (w.1005 H).
Among the writers of other Alfiyah Sharh, which can be displayed in this paper, is Al-Muradi, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Aqil, and Al-Asymuni.
Al-Muradi (d. 749 AH) wrote two books to the book Sharh al-Fawaid Tashil and Nazham Alfiyah, both of Ibn Malik. Although this is not popular in Sharh Indonseia, but opinions are quoted by other scholars. Among others, Al-Damaminy (d. 827 AH) a great writer when he wrote Sharh al-Fawaid Tashil Al-Muradi make it work as a book of reference. Similarly, al-Sharh Asymuni when compiling Alfiyah and Ibn Hisham al-Mughni when compiling many quotes al-Muradi thought that his students, Abu Hayyan .
Ibn Hisham (w.761 H) is a giant nahwu expert whose work was admired by many subsequent scholars. Among the works that are named Audlah Alfiyah Sharh al-Masalik the famous Audlah. In this book he perfected many definitions of a term that the concept has been prepared by Ibn Malik, as the definition of tamyiz. He is also a lot of discipline rules that between one another meet, like the rules in Chapter Tashrif. Of course, he not only stunned by the school of Andalusia, but also quoted School Kufa, Basrah and the like. The book is quite interesting, so many great scholars who wrote hasyiyah. Among others Hasyiyah Al-Sayuthi, Hasyiyah Ibn Jama, Ha-syiyah own Son Ibn Hisham, Al-Ainiy Hasyiyah, Hasyiyah Al-Karkhi, Hasyiyah Al-Sa’di al-Maliki al-Makki, and an interesting again is the record feet (ta’liq) for Kitab al-Taudlih prepared by Khalid ibn Abdullah al-Azhari (d. 905 H).
Ibn Aqil (d. 769 AH) was born in Aleppo and scholars served as the prince grew up in Egypt. His written works are many, but the famous is Sharh Alfiyah. Sharh is very simple and easily digested by those beginners who want to learn Alfiyah Ibn Malik. He was able to decipher the verses Alfiyah methodologically, thus revealing what is meant by Ibn Malik in general. The author argues that the book is Sharh Alfiyah the most widely circulated in boarding schools, and widely read by the students in Indonesia. Sharh Against this, the next clerics appear to write hasyiyah. Among others, Ibn al-Mayyit Hasyiyah, Hasyiyah Athiyah al-Ajhuri, Hasyiyah al-Syuja’i, and Hasyiyah Al-Khudlariy.
That’s all we can offer in this paper. In fact most of the authors other books which his books are studied by Darunnajat students. But because of the limitations of our ability, we only present some of them only. And even if only partially, many of their stories are very valuable lesson that if we practice it then we will get much science from them.
And since we are only human, of course, a lot of mistakes in the writing of this paper, for that we apologize that as much. And do not forget we would like to thank all those involved in the preparation of this paper. And Allaah knows best
ARANGED BY: ASEP NURROFIQ, JINDAN, SAIFUL UMAM, SUGENG PRAYITNO